The liquid fraction (rubber-derived oil) from our CRPR technology will be processed for separation and purification of our important product Limonene.
The quantity of our Green Limonene is guaranteed at 20% of the original weight of the waste.
From origin Limonene is a natural substance that is extracted from the oil of citrus peels which gives the characteristic odor to them.
It can be distilled from this oil by different techniques and is used as a natural food additive and as a solvent/degreaser. Extraction and distillation processes are carried out in all citrus producing regions of the world to meet increasing demands for Limonene.
Limonene is a colorless liquid at room temperature. The purity of commercial used d-Limonene is about 90-98%, the impurities are mainly monoterpenes.
In recent years Limonene has acquired a special significance for its demand as biodegradable solvent for resins, pigments, inks, paints and adhesives in manufacturing.
Solvent is one of the most commonly used products in the industry. It is estimated that in the EU only 2,2 million tons of solvents are consumed.
The most used solvents are alcohols such as ethanol, n-butanol, and methanol isopropanol.
Industries greatest amount of solvents are being used in the field of coatings and paints. Without the presence of solvents, paints present a high viscosity and would be impossible to apply on surfaces. The annual consumption of toxic solvents in this industry is 1,5 million tons.
Solvents are also used in the manufacture of photographic film, are ingredients of medicines, cosmetics, insecticides, adhesives and cleaning products. Solvents also play an important role in removing paint.
Concerns about the emission of VOCs into the atmosphere and creating new regulations that limit the use of this type of solvent , especially in the European and North American Union, causes the consumption of traditional solvents to be substituted.
The solvents industry is a market that moves billions around the world. However, due to new laws and restrictions on use of some organic compounds, the replacement of these products by greener, sustainable alternatives must become a fact within the next coming years.
Therefore Limonene has acquired a special significance because of its demand as biodegradable solvent to replace the traditional solvents.
Another important application of Limonene is the usage as an insecticide to repel or kill ants, aphids, scale insects, flies, mites, cockroaches and wasps. Because it is not toxic to humans and pets nor harmful to gardening nor plants indoor nor for the environment, it can be used in homes, offices and schools. There is a growing demand for foods that are not treated with the traditional insecticides.
Apart from industrial solvent and insecticide Limonene also has applications as an aromatic component and it is widely used for synthesizing new compounds. It is finding widespread use in the industry of household cleaning products, food and cosmetics industry, in part because its aroma is pleasant.
Other applications are additive in fragrances, in coolants such as odor control, etc. and usage by the pharmaceutical and food industries as a flavoring, being used, for example, in obtaining artificial flavors and mint candy making, chewing gum, drinks and spices.
Recent studies also indicate that Limonene can have anti-cancer effects. It increases levels of liver enzymes involved in the detoxification of carcinogens. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a system that eliminates carcinogens. Limonene GST system seems to promote liver and intestines mitigating the harmful effects of carcinogens.
In a study of 43 women who had just been diagnosed with breast cancer, researchers from the University of Arizona Cancer Center provided them with two grams of limonene to evaluate its anti-cancer properties. This was done every day, between two and six weeks before their surgery, with researchers collecting breast tissue and blood samples to measure changes in key biomarkers linked to breast cancer. Based on the results, biomarkers for breast tumor were reduced by 22 percent. The reduction included cyclin D1, a protein strongly associated with breast cancer. Researchers also noted that the d-limonene that the women consumed became highly concentrated in the affected breast tissue.
Limonene also has a cholesterol lowering activity.
We will be able to produce Limonene with a purity of up to 98% in large amounts.
With respect to the used technology and innovation of this plant, we can safely state that there does not exist any plant in the world that is able to produce Limonene from waste products.
In addition, Limonene is a natural, greatly demanded product. Global Limonene market size was estimated at over 45 kilo tons in 2015 and is anticipated to exceed 65 kilo tons by 2023.
Present Limonene production is mostly dependable on global Citrus and Orange crop results. However, these results vary a lot during the years due to plagues like citrus greening and other that affect production.
Our CRPR technology is completely independent from any crop results and ensures a continuous and undisturbed production of high purity Limonene. We are convinced that with a guaranteed continuous production, application of Limonene, and the market size can increase.
The Pyrolysis reactor is provided with overflows for the extraction of the second product of the process, green carbon black that meets standards N660 and N762.
In the process the carbon black obtained will be activated that releases the required smaller pores and also increases the specific surface.
From the initial 30% carbon black by weight of the rubbers about 40% green activated carbon is produced.
Activated Carbon is a generic term that describes a family of highly crystalline carbonaceous adsorbents with a highly developed internal porosity.
From the point of view of the chemical composition, our Activated Carbon is almost pure carbon.
It is a material characterized by a very large number of micropores (pores less than 2 nanometers radius). Because of its high microporosity, one gram of Activated Carbon can have a surface area of 500 m² or more. Our plant will be able to produce Activated Carbon with a surface of >= 1000 m2/gr.
The ability of an Activated Carbon to retain a particular substance, it is not only given by its surface area, but also by the proportion of pores whose size is right: one to five times the diameter of the molecule of the substance to be adsorbed. A wide variety of Activated Carbon products showing different characteristics, depending on the starting material and the activation technique used in its production.
Activated carbon can be produced in powder, granules or cylindrical pellets.
Currently, different types of Activated Carbon are supplied in multiple sectors of the food industry. Typically it is used in two formats (granular or powder) for removal of impurities.
Active Carbon, has physical adsorption properties. Therefore, Active Carbon is capable of retaining volatile organic compounds and is used for the purification of air and gas
Activated Carbon in the treatment of drinking water can be used as granular carbon or powdered carbon. Activated carbon removes different impurities present in the water.
Worldwide there are continuous demands for cleaner production in enterprises in order to reduce pollution. The obligation on the part of Western governments to meet certain standards for emissions of gases into the atmosphere, and the treatment of water and wastewater causes a period of fast growth. The next four years show an increase of worlds Activated Carbon consumption by 9% yearly;
The US’ continued reliance on coal-generated electricity will necessitate continued use of powdered Activated Carbon for air purification.
The implementation of Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is designed to reduce the emissions of mercury, acid gases, metal, and other hazardous air pollutants from oil and coal fired power plants, solid waste incinerators, cement plants, and other facilities operating industrial boilers. To meet these requirements, these industries will predominantly turn to Activated Carbon Injection systems.
In October 2013, more than 90 countries also signed a new UN treaty on mercury control.
The major Activated Carbon products used worldwide are mainly manufactured from coal (lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous and anthracite), coconut-shell charcoal and wood (hard wood, soft wood and bamboo). One of the key challenges in the market is the shortage of raw materials such as coconut shell charcoal which is used for the making of Activated Carbon.
Therefore there will be a never ending demand for green Activated Carbon especially when it is produced from renewable sources like rubber waste.
From the liquid fraction produced by the production unit type II the two fuels (Diesel and Gasoline) are separated through fractional distillation. The amount of Diesel reaches a yield of 36% by weight of the rubber waste processed. Gasoline reaches a yield of 19%.
The Diesel and Gasoline obtained require further processing and cleaning to meet the corresponding standards of the car fuel consumers market.
The second (besides Limonene) fraction in the pyrolysis oil of production unit type I that is separated with fractional distillation and/or the “supercritical fluid” technology can be characterized as a light and medium Fuel Oil.
We will produce around 40% by weight.
Global consumption of liquid fuels will increase 38% by 2040. New sources for the fuel production are critical. Liquid fuels from renewable sources currently supply a relatively small portion of total worlds liquid fuels, accounting for about 14% of the total in 2010. However, they are expected to grow in importance, rising to 17% of total liquid fuels in 2040.
Fossil fuels must be replaced as much as possible with sustainable alternatives such as our green fuel.
Therefore there will be a never ending demand for green liquid fuels produced from renewable sources.
Treatment by additivity and stabilization allow to obtain an approved a homologated Diesel, Gasoline and Fuel Oil, that comply to the specifications of fuels used by automobiles and vessels.
Green renewable Diesel produced by our technology is a true hydrocarbon just like traditional Diesel and meets standard for Diesel fuel oils.
Our green fuels are chemically similar to traditional fuels and can be used in today’s tanks, pipelines, trucks, pumps and automobiles without changes.
There will be sufficient possibilities to sell our green fuels to independent providers or directly to consumers via own gas stations or a combination of both.
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